欲しい、欲しがる、たい、たがる Forms

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  1. Hitomaru

    Hitomaru Translator, empty...

    欲しい、欲しがる、たい、たがる Forms

    In Japanese, there are ways to express desire for X, where X is an object - noun or, desire to perform a Y, where Y is an action - verb.

    In such cases of the former, we use 欲しい to express our personal desire for an object - a noun. That is, it is something you have inside of you, in your head, telling you, you want X.

    Formula: 私は(object here)が欲しいです。

    Example:

    1. 子供の時、おもちゃが欲しかったです。
    2. お金は余り欲しくありません。

    Notice that 欲しい conjugates as an い-adj. Moreover, it is a private predicate, in the sense that one uses it to express desire for oneself.

    Additionally, we can also use: と言っています in conjuction with 欲しい, to report what another person said to be his/her desire for something.

    Example: スバル君はコンピュータが欲しいと言ってます。

    On the other hand, when we want to express our desire to perform an action such as Y, the latter, we normally use たい for this purpose with VERBS. In its usage, たい is used for aspirations to perform actions, rather than desire for objects - this is for 欲しい.

    Formula to make たい verb forms: Long form of verb (without ます)+たい

    Example:

    1. 見る->見たい
    2. 入る->入りたい
    3. 練習する->練習したい

    Like 欲しい conjugates as an い-adj, たい likewise conjugates as an い-adj.

    Example: 学校へ行きたくありません。

    Similarly, we can also use: と言っています in conjuction with the たい form to report someone's desire to perform Y.

    Example: ザカリーさんは日本語を勉強したいと言っていました。

    Different Points of View and the たい and 欲しい Forms

    Confirmable Cases: 欲しい、たい

    For the first person point of view where one is CERTAIN about one's feelings, we use:

    For Nouns: (Nouns)+が欲しいです。

    For Verbs: (Object acted on)+が+Long form of verb (without ます)+たいです。

    This is the result of the fact that one can be sure about one's feelings in the fact that one experiences it directly.

    Now, if one is in dialogue with another person in the second person point of view, we can also ascertain between the other person our desires, wants and wishes. Following this, we can also use たい and 欲しい directly, just as with the first person perspective.

    Example for 欲しい:

    ピータ: アイスクリームが欲しいですか?
    サーム:うん、アイスクリームが欲しいです。

    Example for たい:

    ピータ: アイスクリームが食べたいですか?
    サーム: うん、アイスクリームが食べたいです。

    Notice that in this dialogue, these people can directly interact in dialogue to confirm what they want between each other. Hence たい and 欲しい are used as like with the first person point of view.

    Additionally, notice that the たい example seems to emphasize the liking of the action aside from the object.

    Uncertain Case: 欲しがる、たがる

    In the 3rd person point of view (like talking about a person between a friend and yourself), it becomes apparent we cannot be sure about the liking and desires of this person - not present in the conversation. In this case, たい and 欲しい both have to be adapated to suit this purpose and hence:

    欲しがる - For Nouns

    たがる - For Verbs

    Example: Peter and Sam are talking about Takeshi without him knowing:

    欲しがる:

    ピータ: たけしさんはアイスクリームを欲しがっていますか?
    サーム:はい、彼はアイスクリームを欲しがっています。

    たがる:

    ピータ: たけしさんはアイスクリームを食べたがっていますか?
    サーム:はい、彼はアイスクリームを食べたがっています。

    Notice above, がる is actually an auxilliary verb and as such, conjugates as a regular verb. We attach this to 欲しい and たい but drop the い in the end. Practically, we use these forms to talk about something from the external in third person.

    Additional Information:

    The ている conjugated forms of たがる and 欲しがる, when used actually implies more than that of being in the present tense -more specific tone. When we use ている, with 欲しがる、たがる we imply something more specific along with it.

    Notice:

    1A. 子供はアイスクリームを欲しがる。
    2A. 子供はアイスクリームを食べたがる。

    Now, if we make this in ている, notice the change in nuance:

    1B. 子供はアイスクリームを欲しがっている。
    2B. 子供はアイスクリームを食べたがっている。

    With the former, it implies a more general tone to it that "children love to eat ice cream/like ice cream" - an empirical fact/statement. On the other hand, the latter is actually more specific to a case.

    The main point in all this is that, 欲しい is for objects (noun) while たい is for actions (verbs). These forms change with the addition of the auxilliary verb がる when we aren't sure about the case.

    Lastly, the ている form of the verb of がる implies a specific fact where as leaving it in plain form just gives a general statement.

    Source:

    Banno, E., Ohno, Y., Sakane, Y., Shinagawa, C., & Tokashiki, K. (1999). Genki I: Integrated approach to elementary Japanese. Japan: Japan Times.

    Banno, E., Ohno, Y., Sakane, Y., Shinagawa, C., & Tokashiki, K. (1999). Genki II: Integrated approach to elementary Japanese. Japan: Japan Times.

    Ventura, Francesca [personal interview] - My Japanese teacher :)
  2. Hitomaru

    Hitomaru Translator, empty...

    Futa, its time to take notes again! haha

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